Where Will You Trek in 2023?World's Best Mountain RangesView Top 10

18 Days$6990USD

  • 10 day trek
  • 6 days adventure touring
  • 2 nights hotel
  • 2 night ger
  • 13 nights camping
  • 17 Dinners
  • 15 Lunches
  • 17 Breakfasts
Moderate to Challenging

Traveller Rating



Trip highlights

  • Travel with Tim Cope for a culturally enriching experience of western Mongolia
  • Trek through the Kharkhiraa and Tsaast Uul mountains
  • Explore the Mongolian capital of Ulaanbaatar
  • Follow the migratory routes of the Khotont nomadic families
  • Camp in the Mongolian steppe
  • Spend time with nomadic Kazakh peoples and learn of their way of life

Join Australian adventurer and writer Tim Cope for a unique moderate-challenging trek among remote Khoton and Kazakh nomads in the Kharkhiraa and Tsaast Uul mountains of Western Mongolia. The focus of this trip is spending less time crossing the vast landscape of Mongolia by jeep, and more time trekking off the beaten track immersed in the landscape and culture of the legendary horsemen and women of the steppes. Tim, who rode a horse for three and a half years from Mongolia to Hungary across the steppes of Eurasia is passionate about the nomadic way of life and the history of the Mongolian people whose ancestors were among the first in history to tame the horse. The itinerary takes us from Ulaanbaatar by plane to Ulaangom in the west where we begin the trek in the Kharkhiraa mountains - part of the greater Altai range. In this region lives a small and intriguing ethnic group of Mongolians called the ‘Khoton.’ Unlike many nomads of Mongolia who have adopted the motorbike and truck as part of their nomadic existence, the Khoton still make their annual journey up into the high passes of the Kharkhiraa with just camels, yaks, and horses. Our trek follows the migratory routes of these Khoton families along the Kharkhiraa river gorge and eventually up to the spectacular high pass at 3000m between Kharkhiraa and Turgen peaks. Along the way we will pass evidence of ancient nomadic people in the form of Turkic gravestone markers, and hear from Tim about the many legends and stories that tell much about the Mongolian connection to their animals and the land. Travelling with us will be a small caravan of local horsemen and their horses and camels that will be taking our luggage and equipment. There will be an opportunity to encounter the nomadic people most days, and from the high pass, weather permitting, there will be an optional return walk up to a high ridge at about 3600 metres. The second half of the Kharkhiraa trek takes us on a descent towards the Khovd river where we will be met by vehicle support. The landscape of the Kharkhiraa is dominated by open slopes dotted with nomad tents, deep river gorges, alpine lakes, and the inspiring, glacier capped peaks of Kharkhiraa and Turgen. Although it is very rare and unlikely to spot one, it is worth noting that these mountains are renowned as one of the refuges for the endangered snow leopard. Trekking days involve 6-8 hours of walking, and although there are no technical parts to the trek, a medium to high level of fitness is required. The second, less demanding part of the journey takes us to Olgiy, capital of the Kazakh province of Western Mongolia, and the spectacular mountain of ‘Tsaast Uul.’ Here we will experience Kazakh people, another of Mongolia’s ethnic peoples. Two more days of trekking will give us a rich insight into the diversity of the people who living on the vast and fenceless land of Mongolia. After an afternoon reflecting on the shores of Tolboo Nuur lake, we return to Olgiy and fly to Ulaanbaatar. Integral to this tour, is also supporting a local Mongolian charity, Autism Mongolia. $100 of your tour price will be donated to this charity in Ulaanbaatar at a special presentation when we arrive. There will be the opportunity to meet with representatives from the charity and make additional donations if desired.

Trip Code: IFN

You will be met and transferred from the airport to the group hotel. Following an orientation tour of the city and a traditional Mongolian concert, we will meet in the evening for a group dinner and briefing. We will also be making our charitable donation to a representative of Autism Mongolia. Overnight: Best Western Premier Tuushin Hotel or similar

Meals:  D

Following breakfast we transfer to the airport for a flight to the far western town of Ulaangom (the capital of Uvs province). Uvs is home to several ethnic groups, the majority of whom are Dorvod Mongolians who speak a dialect that differs from the Khalkh Mongol language of Central Mongolia. Uvs is particularly famous for its strong tradition of wrestling. As we fly in, you will see just to the north of the town a large body of water known as Uvs Nuur which is by area the largest lake in Mongolia. In Ulaangom we will lunch together in a restaurant before travelling by Russian four wheel drive to the village of Tarialan. The drive will be around one hour and just beyond the village at the entrance to the gorge on the Kharkhiraa river we will unload and make camp. Here we will meet the local team of horsemen with the camels who will be portaging our equipment and travelling with us over the Kharkhiraa pass. Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

PLEASE NOTE: This day a contingency day intentionally built into the trip to allow for uncontrollable changes to the itinerary such as the ever changing schedule of the domestic flights. Should the flights run to schedule, and there are no other hold ups (such as weather-related events) we’ll have have an extra day in the mountains. Your leader will determine the best options for the group depending on the prevailing conditions and flights. Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,D

Our route takes us into the mountains via a gorge through which the Kharkhiraa river flows. Aspen forest grows along the bank, and the combination of the mountain shadows and glacier-fed waters makes it a spectacular start to the trek. River crossings will be made to avoid cliffs (these cliffs appear on different sides of the riverbank as the river twists and turns hence the need to cross). These crossings will be made with the aid of horses, and perhaps tractors depending on the conditions. This is the way that the Khoton people migrate themselves from the plains near Tarialan into the mountains for summer. If we are lucky we will meet some families moving in camel trains into the mountains, children and babies strapped into the cane baskets high up on the back of the camels. The Khoton people are a strongly nomadic tribe numbering about one or two thousand and live primarily in the Kharkhiraa mountains. Their history is very murky. No one really knows where they came from or when although they believe they have Turkic origins. They have adopted many Mongolian customs, but their language is different, and their facial features differ from Mongolians. By evening we will have left the plains long behind and the canyon-like valley will have given way to a wide river plain. We make camp among ancient Turkic grave markers. Trekking: ~13km, +300m Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

A day of winding our way upwards when we may catch a glimpse of the ice-encrusted peaks of the high Kharkhiraa rising as spectacular pyramids and domes. Along the way we will meet with many nomad families who are making the most of the alpine pasture. We may have a chance to visit a ger and drink their ‘salty tea.’ Keep in mind that the Kharkiraa as a whole only sees about 30-40 foreigners a year. On our way today we will pass more Turkic grave marker stones and camp near a nomad camp on grassy steppe. The Turkic grave markers and ‘kurgan’ graves date back to the bronze age (about 2,000 years ago) and can be seen as circular piles of rocks surrounded by squares or circles. In one Kurgan up to 45 people would have been buried with many horses. They are the distant nomad ancestors of the Mongols and Khoton people. In fact, the Kharkhiraa are part of the greater ‘Altai’ mountain range which is said to be at the very heart of Asia. Iranians, Turks, Mongols, Kazakhs, and many other people trace their history back to the people who came from the Altai and moved down to the steppe to tame horses, yaks and camels. Even today the Altai splits Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Russia and is the meeting point of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and Shamanism. In the evening we will enter a deep valley and the peaks above will be hidden from view. Camp will be made once again in the vicinity of nomads. Trekking: ~17km, +600m Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

After a possible stop among nomads for morning tea to watch how they make traditional vodka from yak yoghurt, the river valley makes a bend and suddenly before us the mountains will be revealed. The highest peak is Kharkhiraa itself at 4037m, encrusted in glaciers. This is a particularly surprising view since these particular peaks have actually been hidden until now. From here we make our way directly up towards the high pass in between the main peaks of the Kharkhiraa range. Near the base of the climb to the high pass we will make an early camp. There will be an opportunity in the evening to trek up towards the Kharkhiraa glacier at the headwaters of the Kharkhiraa River. Trekking: ~17km, +400m Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

We wake early and make our way up a steep pinch on the final climb to the pass (quite steep, but fairly short and on foot poses no real risks). The pass itself is a wide plain. You have the sensation that somehow you have reached the clouds because many of the glaciers are well below eye level and the summits are only about 1000m above. Weather permitting we will lunch on the pass together with the camels. The view expands again when we reach beyond the highest point of the pass. Conditions permitting the distant ‘Sayan Mountains’ of Russia will be in view and far below a series of alpine lakes pock-mark the steppe. From here there will be the option of descending to camp on the south side of the pass or climbing up to 3600m on Turgen mountain. This trek, which is the most challenging and steep of the journey, takes us to a high ridge from where the extent of the mountains, including Kharkhiraa peak itself, will will be in view. Glaciers flow down from below your feet to the east and to the west is the airy drop down to the high pass. The mountains right before us form a breathtaking amphitheatre draped in ice. We make the descent via different route to camp and won’t arrive until late evening. Although this high trek is quite physically challenging and gives a real sense of mountain exposure it is a very safe route that anyone with a good level of fitness could complete. Trekking: ~15km, +1000m (including optional climb) Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

We will spend two nights camped at nearly 3000 metres on the Kharkhiraa pass, allowing for a day to rest and savour the mountain landscape, or join an optional trek around Khokh Nuur – a spectacular, blue alpine lake at the end of a glacier on Kharkhiraa mountain. If the weather did not permit a climb to Turgen the previous day, this day can also be used to attempt a climb of the high ridge on Turgen. Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

Having reached the high point of the journey it is time to begin our descent to the west. We make our way among a myriad of hills and alpine lakes and get a different perspective of the Kharkhiraa mountains. Eventually we will begin encountering gers and nomads once again and will make camp along a river valley. Trekking: ~19km, -600m Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

A spectacular, and at times challenging day of trekking. The river that began as a trickle at the high-pass camp is now sunken deep into a gorge below. We trek along the steppe above following the routes of the nomad camel trains and eventually descend into a forested gorge. Here a stream cascades down among boulders. The smell of fresh forest and water will be a change from the past few days. Here we will make camp and celebrate with a wash in the stream. Trekking: ~17km, gradual descent for most of day, steep descent to camp into gorge. Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

A day of ever changing landscapes - from the river gorge and forest, to high plains, a sea of green steppe, a spectacular waterfall for lunch, and finally desert-like mountains and plains. We will meet more nomads and encounter ancient graves. Eventually arrive in the tiny settlement of ‘Khovd Brigad.’ This is actually just a summer camp of Khoton people in their gers (much like having a mobile village). The ‘winter village’ is Khovd Sum through which we will travel on our way out. By the time you set foot here it does feel as if we have come a long way. This is as far as vehicles can make it, and we will be met here by our Russian jeeps. Trekking: ~18km, gradual descent with some small climbs Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

By jeep we will travel into the adjacent province of Bayan Olgiy. This is actually a province that is 90 percent Kazakh with a markedly different culture to the rest of Mongolia. Kazakhs are Muslim as opposed to Buddhists and we will see immediately that their ger homes are of a different shape and size. The Kazakhs trace their history to a break away group of Turkic nomads (who revolted against a Khaanate leader) about 400 years ago. Kazakh roughly means ‘free steppe rider.’ Since China, Russia, Mongolia and Kazakhstan agreed on borders in the 1930s-40s Kazakhs have been unable to migrate freely as they used to. Kazakh culture as a result however has been largely preserved in Mongolia, unlike Russified Kazakhstan. What we witness in Bayan Olgiy is truly a slice of history. Kazakh hunters even still train eagles for winter hunts of fox, wolf and marmot- a 2,000 year old tradition. Beautiful valleys lined with gers, deserts, snowy mountain ranges rising to 4000m and above, Bayan Olgiy has a rugged, timeless beauty. We will make it to the capital of Bayan Olgiy province, Olgiy where we will stay in a ger camp and have the opportunity to visit the museum and markets. Overnight: Ger camp

Meals:  B,L,D

A four or five hour drive to the 4208m high Tsaast Uul (Snow Mountain). While approaching the mountain, following the Zuslan gol upstream, we have a great view of the snow capped mountain which with Tsambagarav Uul (4102 m) forms a mountain massif on the border of Bayan Olgiy and Hovd province. We will camp with Kazakh nomads at a plateau at 2400m at the foot of the mountain (at the Bayan Olgiy side of the mountain). Here, for those who would like, we may have the opportunity to sleep in gers with local families. Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

We take the four wheel drives to a 3000m pass between the Tavan Belchirii Uul in the north (3657m) and Tsast Uul in the south. In this area during summer Uriankhai nomads graze their herds. The Uriankhai are from the same ethnic group as the Tuva across the border in Russia and the Tsataan (reindeer people) in the central northern part of Mongolia. They are actually from Turkic origin, but adopted the Mongolian language and Buddhist religion (but with shamanistic influences). Their living conditions are poorer than the Kazakh nomads - gers are not as large and herds are smaller. The Uriankhai are actually the original inhabitants of Bayan Olgiy (the Kazakh came to Bayan Olgiy during the 19th century from China, at that time Mongolia was part of China), but are now a minority of about 10% in Bayan Olgiy and live in the more higher and remote areas of the province. After setting up camp with an Uriankhai family we will take on a challenging trek up Tsaast Uul mountain along the edge of a glacier to around 3600m where there are spectacular views right into the Altai, and back to Kharkhiraa and Turgen in the distance. After a long, but gradual descent back down the same route we will reach the Uriankhai camp, where we started the trek. Trekking: ~15km, 600m Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

Depending on weather conditions, there will be an option to walk to an alpine lake, up another 3500m ridge, or just spend the day with the Uriankhai family. In the afternoon we will begin our descent by 4WD to Tolboo Nuur. En-route in the 4WDs we will climb three passes, Balkhit Uzuurin Davaa (2487m) and Buraatiin Davaa (2649m) and Ulaan Davaa (2214m) and finally reach the Tolboo valley. From the passes there are specaular views of the snow capped Sairiin Uul (3981m) to the south. North of the small village of Tolboo is Tolboo Nuur (Lake Tolboo), a high-altitude (2079m) freshwater lake. A monument here remembers that here a major battle was fought between Bolshevik and White Russians in August 1921. The shoreline is treeless and water is clean, but quite cold even in August. We will make camp near the lake. Trekking: ~8km, +450m Overnight: Tented camp

Meals:  B,L,D

Drive to Olgiy in time to visit Olgiy market in the afternoon. Olgiy itself is a fascinating mix of traditional Kazakh mud huts, gers, mosques and in the centre Soviet architecture. It has a distinct Central Asian atmosphere and as as the trading point, and capital of Kazakh culture in Mongolia is always bustling with both town dwellers and nomads who converge daily. Kazakhs are famous for their colourful embroidery and felt work and there wil be the opportunity to buy some of these handcrafts at the market. For our last night before heading back to Ulaanbaatar we will overnight in a ger camp, have the opportunity to wash in a local public house and enjoy a traditional Kazakh dinner. Overnight: Ger camp

Meals:  B,L,D

Early in the morning we catch a flight to Ulaanbaatar. The afternoon is free to relax in one of the capitals sidewalk cafes, do some last minute shopping, or visit other sights such as the Winter Palace of Bogd Khaan. A special group dinner followed by a private concert. Overnight: Best Western Premier Tuushin Hotel or similar

Meals:  B,L,D

Trip concludes following breakfast. Transfers will be organised to take you to the airport.

Meals:  B


  • 17 breakfasts, 15 lunches and 17 dinners
  • 2 nights in comfortable hotel accommodation on a twinshare basis
  • 1 night in ger accommodation on a multi share basis and 14 nights fully supported camping on a twinshare basis
  • Internal flights within Mongolia
  • Airport transfers on day 1 & day 18
  • Accompanied by Tim Cope and an expert local guide
  • Pack animal support during trek with 20kg allowance
  • Souvenir World Expeditions 50l kit bag
  • Medical kit and satellite phone for emergency use
  • Private vehicles
  • Sightseeing and entry fees as listed in itinerary
  • AUD100 donation to Autism Mongolia

  • Aerated and alcoholic drinks
  • Items of a personal nature such as phone calls, laundry, etc.
  • Tips and gratuities
  • International airfares & departure taxes
  • Visa costs
  • Travel Insurance (compulsory)

About Your Leader

Tim Cope is an award winning adventurer, author, and film-maker who is passionate about adventure as a vehicle for understanding landscape, culture and history. His most renowned journey was a three year, 10,000km horse back trek from Mongolia to Hungary across the great Eurasian Steppe. He is the creator of the three-hour television documentary series,‘On the Trail Of Genghis Khan’ and wrote a best selling book by the same title. In 2015 Tim was given the Mongolian Tourism Excellency Award, and was made the international ambassador for Mongolian tourism in recognition of his work to celebrate and promote Mongolian nomadic culture. A veteran of multiple adventures and recipient of the Australian Geographic ‘Adventurer of the Year’award, he has also been working with World Expeditions in Mongolia for more than a decade. To find out more about Tim’s work visit

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Essential Information

Ready to book? Make sure you download and read the detailed Mongolia In the Footsteps of the Nomad with Tim Cope trip notes which contains all the essential information you need to know before booking. Once you’ve booked, we will supply you with a Pre-Departure document which contains a detailed gear list and other important information to help you prepare for your adventure ahead.

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In the steppes of Mongolian nomads: trekking to the end of the Earth

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