Some of our pioneering trips to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and China take in the Tian Shan Mountains. The vast mountain range in Central Asia brings you varying landscapes, high passes, stunning lakes, and the spectacular pyramid of Khan Tengri.
But there is much more to see and discover in this ‘heavenly’ mountain range. To give you an introduction, we have pulled together our pick of the 10 best spots for your next 'out there' adventure.
1. Issyk Kul Lake
Issyk Kul Lake in the Tian Shan Mountains is the world's 2nd largest alpine lake
Lake Issyk-Kul is the second largest alpine lake in the world, after Lake Titicaca in South America. Measuring 182 km long by 58 kilometres wide, the lake appeared as a result of volcanic activity. It is heated underground by thermal springs and never freezes, even in the depths of winter. In the summer, the water temperature reaches 25-28°C, which is warmer than the air. Extremely deep and pleasantly warm, over the centuries the lake has been something of an oasis in this inhospitable mountain environment.
With diverse flora and fauna, Issyk-Kul Lake and the surrounding environment are rightly considered to be one of Central Asia’s most remarkable locations. Take a dip in the lake on our Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan Mountains expedition or on the Silk Road to Samarkand via Kashgar.
2. Charyn Canyon
Charyn Canyon in Kazakhstan is part of the Charyn National Park ©peretzp
200 kilometres east of Almaty lies the Charyn Canyon. In close proximity to the Chinese border it is part of the Charyn National Park, established in 2004. The canyon stretches 154 kilometres along the Charyn River in the northern Tian Shan mountain range. A strikingly beautiful place, the canyon is known for its unusual rock formations and bears semblance to some of the great canyons found in western USA.
Explore this particular section of the Tian Shan mountain range on Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan by Bike.
3. Sleep in Snow Caves
On Khan Tengri in the Tian Shan Mountains
At 7,010 metres the spectacular ice pyramid of Khan Tengri is the second highest mountain in the Tian Shan range and lies on the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Experienced mountaineers can summit the peak and others can enjoy impressive views from lower grounds. On an expedition to summit Khan Tengri, accommodation is often in tents: except for the spot between Chapayev Peak and Khan Tengri at 6,000 metres. Here you’ll most likely set up camp in snow caves! One such cave accommodates approximately 10 people and is a common strategy on Khan Tengri. It reduces the amount of gear to carry and forms a unique way of spending the night in the Tian Shan Mountains.
4. Jeti-Oguz Gorge
'Red Cliffs of Seven Bulls' is the meaning of Jetty Oguz, a gorge in the Tian Shan Mountains
Jeti-Oguz translates from Kyrgyz as ‘Red Cliffs of Seven Bulls’. Jeti Oguz is set at the height of 2,250 metres above sea level on the northern slopes of the Terskei Ala-Too Ridge. The slopes of the gorge are covered with the world-famous Tian Shan blue spruce and form a fantastic mountain wood to trek through. There is a fast mountain river flowing parallel to the trail and a waterfall named Maiden Tears. Imagine spending the night in a traditional yurt with the red cliffs and green conifers as a backdrop.
5. Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves
The Thousand Buddha Caves of Bezeklik ©Laika ac from UK
Picturesquely located on a cliff face overlooking a river valley are the ancient Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves. In the Chinese part of the Tian Shan Mountains, you can visit the caves on your way to or from Urumqi, about a three-hour drive apart. Situated at the foot of the Tian Shan Mountains, Urumqi is the capital of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Our Silk Road to Samarkand via Kashgar takes you to see these impressive caves.
6. Golden Eagle Hunting
Berkutchi Eagle Hunting Museum in the Tian Shan Mountains ©Ken and Nyetta
Golden Eagle hunting is one of the oldest methods of hunting for food. Central Asian ancestors in the Eurasian steppes mastered the art of eagle hunting several thousand years ago, in the Andronov age. Eagle hunting was mainly practiced in the northern and central regions of Kazakhstan. Golden eagles usually catch corsacs and hares, while the stronger, well-trained eagles proved useful for hunting hoofed animals and even wolves. Near Karkara Base Camp, you can visit an eagle hunting museum to learn more about this ancient hunting method.
7. Heavenly Lake
Tian Chi (Heaven's Lake) is set amid the Tian Shan Mountains
From Urumqi it is a nice drive to one of the most impressive sights in China, Tianchi, or Heaven’s Lake. The deep blue lake is set amid the Tian Shan Mountains below the imposing Bogda Peak (5,445 metres) and is framed by fir trees and mountain peaks. You’ll often find it sprinkled with yurts and Kazakh nomad summer camps.
8. Karkara Valley
Karkara Valley was once part of the famous Silk Road ©livepine
On the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, lies the beautiful Karkara Valley. This area was once part of the Silk Road, traversed by Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Chinese traders. Nowadays, the spot is reserved for Base Camp Karakara. It is literally the jumping off point for expeditions to summit Pobedy Peak (7,439 metres) and Khan Tengri (7,010 metres). For those that are visiting the Tian Shan Mountains, the camp may be a welcoming break. Accommodation is in “walk-in” tents, and comes with hot showers, a traditional sauna and a bar!
In the valley, you may meet the nomads who have brought their flocks up to this fertile land, perhaps taste some local tea inside a yurt, or chat with the horsemen and try your hand at milking a horse.
9. Cholpon Ata Petroglyphs
Scattered on the shore of Issyk Kul Lake are the Cholpon Ata Petroglyphs ©HylgeriaK
Close to the shore of Issyk Kul Lake, you’ll find the site of the Cholpon Ata Petroglyphs. Set at the foot of the Kungei Alatau Ridge, they form an interesting cultural stop on a trip in the Tian Shan Mountains. Most of the petroglyphs date from the Saka-Unsun time (8th Century BC – 1st Century AD) and were made by Saka priests for sacrifices and other rites. There are also more recent engravings from the Turkic era, with the most beautiful one depicting several ibex being hunted by snow leopards. You’ll have a nice view of Issyk Kul Lake from the site.
10. Local interactions with nomads
Spend the night in a yurt camp in the summer mountain pastures and on the shore of Son-Kul Lake. It is where Kyrgyz nomadic families live as their ancestors have for generations. Perhaps you will be offered to sample fresh airan (yogurt) and kumis (the national drink of fermented mare’s milk), or maybe the locals will teach you how to set up a yurt?
The yurt is the traditional shelter for people of the Tian Shan Mountains. The nomadic dwellings are constructed of a multi-pieced wooden frame that is overlaid with several felt coverings of sheep wool. It takes only about two hours to put together with many colourful handmade mats, felt rugs and embroideries to be found inside, as well as a ‘dastorkon’ – a low table with delicious food prepared for guests.
Feeling inspired? View our range of adventures in the celestial mountain ranges of Tian Shan.